Velocity by Booz Allen

BOOZ ALLEN AUTHOR INFORMATION Special thanks to all of the leaders from within Booz Allen who contributed to this collection and provided technical and mission expertise along the way. Will Healy [email protected] Ramon Hill [email protected] Brianna Hogan [email protected] Christopher Holder [email protected] Irik Johnson [email protected] Greg Kacprzynski [email protected] Melanie Laffin [email protected] John Larson [email protected] Jeff Leon [email protected]

52. The Physical Impact of Data Alan Weissberger, “Future Market Insights: Telecom Cloud Market CAGR at 15.2% from 2022–2032,” Telecom Cloud Market, IEEE Communications Society, October 7, 2022, market/. “BabyLM Challenge,” GitHub, accessed August 2023, https:// “Carbon Free Energy for Google Cloud Regions,” Google Cloud, last updated August 29, 2023, com/sustainability/region-carbon. David Patterson, Joseph Gonzalez, Quoc Le, Chen Liang, Lluis-Miquel Munguia, Daniel Rothchild, David So, Maud Texier, and Jeff Dean, Carbon Emissions and Large Neural Network Training, Cornell University, April 23, 2021, https:// Emma Strubell, Ananya Ganesh, and Andrew McCallum, Energy and Policy Considerations for Deep Learning in NLP, University of Massachusetts Amherst, June 2019, https:// “Infrastructure as a Service Market Size & Share Analysis – Growth Trends & Forecasts (2023–2028),” Yahoo Finance, August 16, 2023. “Net-Zero Emissions Operations by 2050, Including a 65% Reduction by 2030,” Office of the Chief Sustainability Officer, accessed August 2023, federalsustainabilityplan/emissions.html. Nick Bild, “Going Green with TinyML,”, accessed August 2023, with-tinyml-a44390ec6169. Renee Cho, “AI’s Growing Carbon Footprint,” State of the Planet, June 9, 2023, https://news.climate.columbia. edu/2023/06/09/ais-growing-carbon-footprint. “Software Carbon Intensity (SCI) Specification,” GitHub, accessed August 2023, Foundation/sci/blob/main/Software_Carbon_Intensity/ Sylvain Duranton, Green IT Is No Longer an Option for the Tech Sector,” Forbes, February 27, 2023, https://www- sylvainduranton/2023/02/27/green-it-is-no-longer-an-option- for-the-tech-sector/amp/. “What Is Green Software?,” Green Software Foundation, accessed August 2023, articles/what-is-green-software. 58. The Emerging Citizen Experience David Sulek and Sahil Sanghvi, “Equity as a Platform: Applying a New Mindset to Scale Innovation,” MeriTalk, February 15, 2022, accessed July 19, 2023, https://www. to-scale-innovation/. Partnership for Public Service, The State of Public Trust in Government 2023 , May 30, 2023, publications/the-state-of-public-trust-in-government-2023/.

Sarah Perez, “FTC Warns That AI Technology Like ChatGPT Could ‘Turbocharge’ Fraud,” TechCrunch, April 18, 2023, ai-technology-like-chatgpt-could-turbocharge-fraud-and- scams/. “Transforming the Veteran’s Experience: Customer Experience Tool Powered by Advanced Analytics,” Booz Allen Hamilton, accessed July 13, 2023, https://www.boozallen. com/s/insight/thought-leadership/transforming-the- veterans-experience.html. 64. A Digital Tapestry “CDAO,” Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office, https:// 68. From Science to Practical Climate Resilience “Carl Sagan Testifying before Congress in 1985 on Climate Change,” YouTube, December 10, 1985, com/watch?v=Wp-WiNXH6hI. Kevin Brehm, Avery McEvoy, Connor Usry, and Mark Dyson, Virtual Power Plants, Real Benefits: How Aggregating Distributed Energy Resources Can Benefit Communities, Society, and the Grid , RMI, 2023, virtual-power-plants-real-benefits. 74. Code Writing Code ARK Investment Management, Big Ideas 2023 , January 21, 2023, intelligence/. Matt Bornstein and Rajko Radovanovic, “Emerging Architectures for LLM Applications,” Andreessen Horowitz, n.d., for-llm-applications/.

Rebecca Allegar [email protected] Brad Beaulieu [email protected] Ryan Caulfield [email protected] Chris Christou [email protected] Jarid Cottrell [email protected] Ron Craig [email protected] Michael Dahlberg [email protected] Ted Edwards [email protected] Colin Friedman [email protected] Logan Gibson [email protected] Josh Gordon [email protected] Alex Hanson [email protected] Michelle Harper [email protected]

Dia Metropolis [email protected] Santiago Milian [email protected] Patrick Myers [email protected] Marie Nguyen [email protected] Beau Oliver [email protected] Susan Penfield [email protected] Dave Prakash [email protected] Sonya Rahmani [email protected] Andie Rauta [email protected] Joe Rohner [email protected] Brian Rost [email protected] Horacio Rozanski [email protected] Gabi Rubin [email protected]

Sahil Sanghvi [email protected] Aaron Sant-Miller [email protected] Geoff Schaefer [email protected] Munjeet Singh [email protected] Alison Smith [email protected] Megan Smith-Branch [email protected] Ernest Sohn [email protected] Brad Stone [email protected] Josh Strosnider [email protected] Prachi Sukhatankar [email protected] Eric Syphard [email protected] Betty Thompson [email protected] Eric Zitz [email protected]

Isabella Bello Martinez [email protected] Michael Martoccia [email protected] Cameron Mayer [email protected] Julie McPherson [email protected]



EDITORIAL Executive Editor: John Larson Managing Editor: Elana Akman Editorial Strategy: Abby Vaughan, Sahil Sanghvi Editorial Consultant: Emily Primeaux, Dragonfly Editorial

DESIGN Creative Direction: Chris Walker Art Direction and Design: Brody Rose and David Everett MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS Head of Brand and Marketing: Sandhya Davis For media inquiries please contact Amanda Allison: [email protected] COMMUNICATIONS AND DIGITAL Special acknowledgements to individuals across content, digital, creative, brand, media, legal, website, accessibility, and project management for their support of this project. ABOUT BOOZ ALLEN Trusted to transform missions with the power of tomorrow’s technologies, Booz Allen Hamilton advances the nation’s most critical civil, defense, and national security priorities. We lead, invest, and invent where it’s needed most—at the forefront of complex missions, using innovation to define the future. We combine our in-depth expertise in AI and cybersecurity with leading-edge technology and engineering practices to deliver impactful solutions. Combining more than 100 years of strategic consulting expertise with the perspectives of diverse talent, we ensure results by integrating technology with an enduring focus on our clients. We’re first to the future—moving missions forward to realize our purpose: Empower People to Change the World℠ To learn more, visit

OFFICE OF THE CTO John Larson Julie McPherson Beau Oliver Munjeet Singh Brad Stone

NOTABLE CONTRIBUTIONS Jeff Collins, human performance lead at ŌURA “Unlocking Human Potential” George Flick, vice president, Ursa Space “Open-Source Overload” Corey Jaskolski, Chief Executive Officer, Synthetaic "Open-Source Overload" Jags Kandasamy, Chief Executive Officer, Latent AI “The Physical Impact of Data” “From Science to Practical Climate Resilience” Alex Kotran, Chief Executive Officer, aiEDU “AI for Everyone” Ramesh Kumar, Head of Product and Solutions for AWS Snow services, AWS “Managing Edge AI Sprawl”




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Tim Lortz, data scientist, Databricks “Generative AI in the Wild”


Ken Pratt, technical director, NASK Incorporated “Open-Source Overload” Wellington “Duke” Reiter, Executive Director, Ten Across “From Science to Practical Climate Resilience” Navrina Singh, Chief Executive Officer and founder, Credo AI “The Age of Principled AI”




Johnny C. Taylor, Jr., Chief Executive Officer, Society for HR Management (SHRM) “A Workforce Disrupted?”



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